Monday, 14 July 2014

History of Warsaw

The medieval capital of Poland was the southern city of Krakow, however Warsaw has been the capital of the nation since 1596, and has developed to turn into Poland's biggest city and the country's urban and business focus. Totally demolished by the Nazis throughout World War II, the city figured out how to lift itself from the fiery remains. Today, practically every building in Warsaw dates to the post bellum period - with what little stays of the old structures being bound to a great extent to the restored locale of Stare Miasto and Nowe Miasto, and also chose landmarks and cemeteries.

In 1939 the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany coordinated in the attack and occupation of Poland just to strike against each other in 1941. A flourishing European capital, Warsaw was involved by Nazi Germany from 1939, and was the scene of two real uprisings: - the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 , and - the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.

Following five years under Nazi occupation, in 1944 the tide of war began to betray the Third Reich. Soviet strengths were approaching from the East, along these lines the pioneers of Polish safety development defied the decision of either freeing the capital or taking into account doubtful Soviet 'liberation'.

The Uprising formally started on August 1, 1944 at 5pm. Battling proceeded until October 5, 1944 when the Home Army and its united associations surrendered. In the first days of battling, Nazis killed something like 60,000 regular folks, including ladies and youngsters. In aggregate, the Uprising guaranteed lives of 180,000 regular people, and 18,000 guerillas. Shine contenders were dwarfed and outgunned as they scarcely gotten any backing from the Allies. The Soviet Union intentionally permitted the Warsaw Uprising to fizzle.

Despite the terms of surrender, Nazis pulverized in excess of 85% of Warsaw. Out of very nearly 1,000 verifiably and socially paramount structures just 64 survived. Shine troopers were sent to death camps. Some of Warsaw's regular folks were sent to death camps, others to Germany for constrained work or to diverse Polish urban areas. Once the whole city was transformed into powder, its occupants murdered, its pioneers slaughtered or detained, Soviet strengths entered the city to build a manikin government that would control post bellum Poland for the following 50 years

Friday, 15 February 2013


Przechadzająca się nonszalancko po warszawskiej Pradze Północ Ola burzy wszelkie stereotypy dotyczące tej dzielnicy. Okazuje się, że w okolicach Parku Praskiego spotkac można nie tylko panów w ortalionowych dresach i handlujące kapciami przekupki. Wręcz przeciwnie! Ola ma na sobie niezwykle gustowny beżowy płaszcz, który czyni z niej osobę elegancką, ale i nieco dekadencką (co podkreśliła nasza znajoma wkłądając rękę do kieszeni:)). Ciekawe są też wybrane przez nią dodatki- fioletowa chustka i kolczyki w podobnym kolorze oraz niezobowiązujące trampki. Trampki to - wg Oli - najważniejszy element jej ubioru.

Ola wyznała panu grzywce i pani lukrecji, że jej prawdziwą pasją jest literatura. Uwielbia też dobre kino - poleca filmy Almodovara i "Śniadanie na Plutonie". Chętnie zaprosiłaby każdego na filiżankę (no, ostatecznie plastikowy kubeczek) kawy i na ciemny chlebek z suszonymi owocami. Ola to kolejna niepodobna!

Thursday, 9 August 2012


Warsaw lies in east-central Poland about 300 km (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains and about 260 km (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea, 523 km (325 mi) east of Berlin, Germany. The city straddles the Vistula River. It is located in the heartland of the Masovian Plain, and its average elevation is 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level. The highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of 115.7 metres (379.6 ft) (“Redutowa” bus depot, district of Wola), on the right side – 122.1 metres (400.6 ft) (“Groszówka” estate, district of Wesoła, by the eastern border). The lowest point lies at a height 75.6 metres (248.0 ft) (at the right bank of the Vistula, by the eastern border of Warsaw). There are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city – e.g. Warsaw Uprising Hill (121 metres (397.0 ft)), Szczęśliwice hill (138 metres (452.8 ft) – the highest point of Warsaw in general).

Warsaw is located on two main geomorphologic forms: the plain moraine plateau and the Vistula Valley with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces. The Vistula River is the specific axis of Warsaw, which divides the city into two parts, left and right. The left one is situated both on the moraine plateau (10 to 25 m (32.81 to 82.02 ft) above Vistula level) and on the Vistula terraces (max. 6.5 m (21.33 ft) above Vistula level). The significant element of the relief, in this part of Warsaw, is the edge of moraine plateau called Warsaw Escarpment. It is 20 to 25 m (65.62 to 82.02 ft) high in the Old Town and Central district and about 10 m (32.81 ft) in the north and south of Warsaw. It goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark.

The plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits. The pattern of the Vistula terraces is asymmetrical. The left side consist mainly of two levels: the highest one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace. The contemporary flooded terrace still has visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the Vistula old – riverbed. They consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches. The right side of Warsaw has a different pattern of geomorfological forms. There are several levels of the plain Vistula terraces (flooded as well as former flooded once) and only small part and not so visible moraine escarpment. Aeolian sand with a number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace. These are mainly forested areas (pine forest).

Wednesday, 17 August 2011

Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross

The Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross averages 81 cm (32 in) in length. It is a typical black and white mollymawk with a grey head and large eye patch, and its nape and hindneck are white. Its bill is black with a yellow culmenicorn and a pink tip. It has a blackish grey saddle, tail and upperwing, and its underparts are predominantly white. Its underwing and primaries show a narrow black margin.

The juvenile is similar to the adult but with a white head and black bill. It can be differentiated from the Indian Yellow-nosed by its darker head. Relative to other mollymawks it can be distinguished by its smaller size (the wings being particularly narrow) and the thin black edging to the underwing, The Grey-headed Albatross has a similar grey head but more extensive and less well defined black markings around the edge of the underwing. Salvin's Albatross also has a grey head but has much broader wings, a pale bill and even narrower black borders to the underwing.